Daniel Oore, TRUMP THE MUSICAL PROPHET, in You Shook Me All Campaign Long: Music in the 2016 Presidential Election and Beyond, ed. Eric T. Kasper and Benjamin S. Schoening (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2018).

Link to:

Review of chapter:
“Trump the Musical Prophet, is a tour de force. I am not certain that I can fully express how powerful its arguments are… a startling amount of research … With magisterial sweep…”
Paul Christiansen, Presidential Studies Quarterly 470 DOI: 10.1111/psq.12648 Vol. 50, No. 2, June 2020, 470–474:

. . . Oore’s chapter, “Trump the Musical Prophet,” is a tour de force. I am not certain that I can fully express how powerful its arguments are, but I will try. The author divides Trump’s musical gestures into four categories: lexical, kinesthetic, au- ditory, and mythic. Such gestures, Oore argues, have a hypnotizing effect on the U.S. public: “While we are glued to screens showing Trump’s gestures, he is no less fixated on how we receive and reconstruct them. The notion that ‘Trump is actually a very good listener’ provokes ‘laughter’ and ‘cynical chuckles,’ but it is precisely by attending to our reactions—however selectively—that he has learned to mesmerize and misdirect us with gestures that are ‘newsworthy’” (265). (The internal quotations are from Jean Grant, “Five Things We Learned from Justin Trudeau’s Interview with the New York Times at U of T,” Toronto Life, June 23, 2017, https://torontolife.com/city/toronto-politics/five- things-learned-justin-trudeaus-interview-new-york-times-u-t/; Ian Austin, “Trudeau on Trump: ‘He Actually Does Listen,’” New York Times, June 22, 2017, sec. Americas, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/22/world/americas/trudeau-trump-nafta-canada. html; and Savannah Guthrie, “‘Fire and Fury’ Author Michael Wolff: ‘I Absolutely’ Spoke to President Donald Trump,” Today [NBC News, January 5, 2018], https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=REEg6Jwmp6s.) According to the author, then, Trump’s gestures are effective because he attends to his reception by the public.

Oore’s chapter required a startling amount of research; in approximately 32 pages, there are 215 endnotes. With magisterial sweep, the author analyzes a dizzying number of user-generated musical reassembling of Trump’s speeches on YouTube, such as Avner Hanani’s “Trump Sonata,” which uses Steve Reich–inspired minimalism to bring out Trump’s spoken inflections and rhythms, and the bass cover by Iggy Jackson Cohen titled “Donald Trump Says ‘China,’” in which Cohen plays along with a video of Trump saying “China,” each bass lick conforming to Trump’s rhythmic and intonational patterns. Oore argues further that the focus in various YouTube parodies on the corporeality of Trump (repetition of his vocables, phonemes, words, and phrases as well as caricatures of his appearance) paradoxically fixes his mythic status in the minds of the public. Throughout the chapter, Oore examines Trump’s persona as an exhibitionist performer, how Trump exploited public outrage against him, and how he benefited from public mash-ups of his campaign speeches and interviews.


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This chapter examines Trump’s musicality as it is consumed and reproduced through media and technology, and what this musicality reveals about the man and —us— his consumers.

Trump’s performative dimensions grab at the world’s attention. Not only the attention of his detractors and supporters, but also of the formerly politically disinterested and ambivalent public, far beyond the electorate. With Trump, apathy, disinterest, and neutral posturing are equated with acceptance and support. People are expected to have opinions, and adults are expected to act on these opinions. With this combined attention and pressure, individuals reassemble the very digital media through which they
consume Trump —his words, speech, and actions— to invent their relationship with the man and the myth. Through old and emergent forms of media, and with the help of all his consumers (supporters and detractors alike), Trump has emerged as a triple threat performer. Across geopolitical boundaries “billions and billions and billions” of readers, viewers, and listeners revel in, and are reviled by, the music that is discovered in every fiber of Trump’s public, gestural, performances.

There are three primary types of gestures in which media users discover Trump’s musicality: Trump’s lexical gestures, Trump’s kinesthetic gestures, and Trump’s auditory gestures. A fourth type —the mythic gesture— emerges when any of the three primary gestures are abstracted beyond representations of Trump’s own body. Such mythic gestures are perhaps more commonly explored by his supporters than his detractors since the latter often focus on, question, or shame the very materiality of his body (e.g. unnatural hair, tiny hands, Emperor Has No Balls statues), and the immorality of its actions. Their strategy is to make the mythical vulnerable, and to reciprocate Trump’s
own habit of issuing dehumanizing objectifications. Trump apologizes with exceeding rarity, however, and why should he when he knows himself to be “the greatest jobs president that God ever created”?

Trump’s gestures grab us through the media we consume. Through media, his gestures reach us, repeat with us, and are reproduced with us. We assemble him, disassemble him, and reassemble him, inventing a man, a machine, a moron, a monster, a master, a myth… His gestures reflect our own collective and mythic patterns of media consumption, consumption that is a prerequisite for his emergence. Through lexical, kinesthetic, and auditory gestures we scrutinize or celebrate not just Trump’s body, morality, and predictive power, but our own. His body is our body and his music is our music; we assemble order and chaos, and judge our omnipotence and omniscience through him. He is our prophet and his song is our prophecy.

CHAPTER FOOTNOTES (for easy URL access):

  1. Tom Morello, whose work is discussed in “Repeating Reverberations,” cites Martin Luther King Jr.: “‘There’s no hotter place in hell than for people who remain neutral in times of moral conflict.’ This is a time of moral conflict, and so we are escaping the hot pit of hell by bringing some rock and roll hip hop fury.” Bloomberg Politics, “Prophets of Rage ‘Make America Rage Again’ (Live at The Whisky),” June 2, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYCxm0NGRFE. See also Emma Brockes, “Neutrality Is Dead. You’re Either with Trump or against Him,” The Guardian, August 25, 2017, sec. Opinion, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/aug/25/donald-trump-president-apolitical. The silent voice of agency where musical celebrities declined Trump’s invitations to perform at the inauguration, examined in David Wilson, “‘Pub Fight’ Politics: Of Trump, Anger Management, and Music,” Chapter 10 of this Volume. Not long after, Trump offered support for white supremacists through his inaction and neutral posturing toward the attack at Charlottesville. Judicial neutrality too, is arguably used to justify certain, say, conservative or liberal, values.
  2. Objectifications that arguably materialize into disenfranchising policy and legislation, including the Trump administration’s restriction of women’s access to birth control, ironically on the dissemination anniversary of his “grab them by the…” comment, Ari Melber, “Trump Restricts Women’s Healthcare on Anniversary of Access…,” The Beat, October 6, 2017, http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc-news/watch/trump-restricts-women-s-healthcare-on-anniversary-of-access-hollywood-1064689219797.
  3. USA TODAY, Trump: “The Greatest Jobs Producer the God Ever Created,” 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jElcJsZhjxY; NowThis News, Donald Trump: “I Will Be The Greatest Jobs President” | NowThis, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Eg1m9w3Az8.
  4. Wilson, “‘Pub Fight’ Politics.” Election campaigns increasingly draw on big data to model the probabilities of each individual’s preferences in order to win their vote. Hannes Grassegger and Mikael Krogerus, “The Data That Turned the World Upside Down,” Motherboard, VICE, January 28, 2017, https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/mg9vvn/how-our-likes-helped-trump-win.
  5. Kira Hall, Donna Meryl Goldstein, and Matthew Bruce Ingram, “The Hands of Donald Trump: Entertainment, Gesture, Spectacle,” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 6, no. 2 (October 31, 2016): 71–100, https://doi.org/10.14318/hau6.2.009.
  6. Jean Grant, “Five Things We Learned from Justin Trudeau’s Interview with the New York Times at U of T,” Toronto Life, June 23, 2017, https://torontolife.com/city/toronto-politics/five-things-learned-justin-trudeaus-interview-new-york-times-u-t/; Ian Austen, “Trudeau on Trump: ‘He Actually Does Listen,’” The New York Times, June 22, 2017, sec. Americas, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/22/world/americas/trudeau-trump-nafta-canada.html.
  7. Michael Wolff claims that Trump “does not read, does not listen,” adding “he’s like a pinball…just shooting off the sides,” suggesting that Trump listens, processes, and responds to external stimuli instinctually. Savannah Guthrie, “‘Fire And Fury’ Author Michael Wolff: ‘I Absolutely’ Spoke to President Donald Trump | TODAY,” Today (NBC News, January 5, 2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REEg6Jwmp6s.
  8. Nerdwriter1, Donald Trump: Magician-In-Chief, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wkvvAQxxo_0.
  9. Emily Nussbaum, “How Jokes Won the Election,” The New Yorker, January 16, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/01/23/how-jokes-won-the-election. laughs in Hall, Goldstein, and Ingram, “The Hands of Donald Trump.”
  10. Carol Vernallis, Experiencing Music Video: Aesthetics and Cultural Context (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).
  11. Ben Craw, “Donald Trump Says Billions and Billions and Billions,” VICE News, July 15, 2017, https://news.vice.com/story/donald-trump-says-billions.
  12. While a semantic network draws on etymologies, it does not claim to trace etymological evolution. See semantic networks and ideasthesia in: Daniel Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Features That Accompany Temporal Deviations in African-American Musics” (University of Toronto, 2017), http://dani.oore.ca/snap-twang-bluenote/; Uta Jürgens and Danko Nikolić, “Ideaesthesia: Conceptual Processes Assign Similar Colours to Similar Shapes,” Translational Neuroscience 3, no. 1 (January 1, 2012), https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-012-0010-4.
  13. See proboscis-snout-snap relationship, and Jew’s harp in Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note.”
  14. Trumping flatulence was early conceived in musical terms, Jonathon Green, “Trump, V.,” Green’s Dictionary of Slang, Oxford Reference (Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers, 2011), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199829941.001.0001/acref-9780199829941-e-48824?rskey=EY1org&result=15. Douglas Harper, “Trump,” Online Etymology Dictionary, 2017, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=trump; John Simpson, ed., “Trump, n.1,” OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), http://www.oed.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/Entry/206926; John Simpson, ed., “Trump, v.1,” OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), http://www.oed.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/Entry/206929; Angus Stevenson, “Trump,” Oxford Dictionary of English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199571123.001.0001/m_en_gb0885760; Jonathon Green, “Trump, n.1,” Green’s Dictionary of Slang, Oxford Reference (Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers, 2011), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199829941.001.0001/acref-9780199829941-e-48821?rskey=EY1org&result=16; Tony Thorne, Dictionary of Contemporary Slang, 3 ed (London: A. & C. Black, 2007); Eric Partridge and Jacqueline Simpson, The Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973), http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=181198.
  15. Simpson, “Trump, v.1”; Simpson, “Trump, n.1”; John Simpson, ed., “† Trump, v.2,” OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), http://www.oed.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/Entry/206930; John Simpson, ed., “Trump, n.2,” OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), http://www.oed.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/Entry/206927; John Simpson, ed., “Trump, v.3,” OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), http://www.oed.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/Entry/206931; John Simpson, ed., “† Trump, n.3,” OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), http://www.oed.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/Entry/206928; Julia Cresswell, “Trump,” The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199547920.001.0001/acref-9780199547920-e-5164; Richard Spears, NTC’s Thematic Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions, 3 ed. (New York: McGraw Hill Professional, 1999); Partridge and Simpson, The Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang.
  16. Patrick Hanks, “Trump (1354),” Dictionary of American Family Names (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780195081374.001.0001/acref-9780195081374-e-64108.
  17. Simpson, “Trump, v.1”; John Ayto and John Simpson, “Trump,” The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199543700.001.0001/acref-9780199543700-e-5503; Cresswell, “Trump.”
  18. Simpson, “Trump, n.2”; Simpson, “† Trump, v.2”; Simpson, “Trump, v.3”; Partridge and Simpson, The Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang. Cf. inventiveness, unforeseen, im-pro-vise, and also extrump as extemporize.
  19. Ronald Decker and Michael Dummett, A History of the Occult Tarot (London: Duckworth Overlook, 2013).
  20. Douglas Harper, “Triumph,” Online Etymology Dictionary, 2017, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=triumph&allowed_in_frame=0; Stevenson, “Trump”; Cresswell, “Trump.”
  21. Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note”; H. S. Versnel, Triumphus: An Inquiry Into the Origin, Development and Meaning of the Roman Triumph (Leiden: Brill, 1970).
  22. Simpson, “Trump, v.1.”
  23. Angus Stevenson, “Last Trump, N.,” Oxford Dictionaries of English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199571123.001.0001/m_en_gb0458630; Angus Stevenson and Christine A. Lindberg, “Last Trump, N.,” New Oxford American Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 2015), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780195392883.001.0001/m_en_us1262325; Cresswell, “Trump.”
  24. Decker and Dummett, A History of the Occult Tarot. Other times the tarot is paired with the letter Shin, a letter signifying patriarchy, tainted by its association with Resh. Michael Laitman, The Zohar [Annotations to the Ashlag Commentary] (Toronto: Laitman Kabbalah Publishers, 2009), 148–53.
  25. Rabbi Aaron L. Raskin, “Reish — Evil,” Chabad.org, 2018, http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/137092/jewish/Reish-Evil.htm. See also Zohar citation above.
  26. John Oliver, “Donald Trump,” LastWeekTonight (HBO, February 28, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnpO_RTSNmQ.
  27. Jonathon Green, “Trump, Adj.,” Green’s Dictionary of Slang, Oxford Reference (Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers, 2011), http://www.oxfordreference.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/view/10.1093/acref/9780199829941.001.0001/acref-9780199829941-e-48823.
  28. Ibid. A web search reveals numerous song lyrics using the word “Trump,” although most of these are as nouns. JAY-Z’s “Brooklyn High,” uses an adjective combining form and Kendrick Lamar’s “Determined” uses an abstract noun form. Other lyrics use the word to name the man, property, or brand specifically, e.g. Tribe Called Quest’s “Skypager,” Nas’s “Loco-Motive,” Lil Wayne’s “Get Down,” “Racks on Racks,” and “Ice Cream,” and Migos’s, “Bars.” See “Trump,” Genius, October 20, 2017, https://genius.com/search?q=trump.
  29. Hugh Atkin, A Little Trump Music —Classic Trump Vol. 2, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGbI-14neOs. See “Repeating Reverberations.”
  30. Nerdwriter1, How Donald Trump Answers a Question, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_aFo_BV-UzI.
  31. “How Many Languages Does Trump Speak?,” Quora, February 2017, https://www.quora.com/How-many-languages-does-Trump-speak; “Does Trump Speak a Second Language?,” Quora, June 2017, https://www.quora.com/Does-Trump-speak-a-second-language; “Does Donald Trump Speak Any Other Languages?,” Quora, August 2017, https://www.quora.com/Does-Donald-Trump-speak-any-other-languages.
  32. Tom Brokaw, “A 33-Year-Old Trump Talks NYC Real Estate in 1980,” Today/NBC News (MSNBC, 1980), http://www.msnbc.com/documentaries/watch/today-show-1980-with-donald-trump-589527619719.
  33. Nerdwriter1, Why Donald Trump Is A Gift To Democracy, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Tji1g0WrPw. pathological speech changes in Bandy X. Lee, The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President, First edition (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2017).
  34. “blue collar” persona in his “Green Acres” performance in “Auditory Gesture.”
  35. Nerdwriter1, How Donald Trump Answers a Question; Vidhi Doshi and Justin McCurry, “Trump in Translation: President’s Mangled Language Stumps Interpreters,” The Guardian, June 6, 2017, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/06/trump-translation-interpreters.
  36. Jennifer Sclafani, Talking Donald Trump: A Sociolinguistic Study of Style, Metadiscourse, and Political Identity (New York: Routledge, 2017).
  37. pathological memory issues and repetition in Michael Wolff, Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2018).
  38. Super Deluxe, Donald Trump’s Speeches as an Early 2000s Emo Song, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCAbBnWm4LM; Super Deluxe, Donald Trump’s Tweets as an Early 2000s Emo Song, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CopDK_jI6DI; Super Deluxe, Donald Trump’s Tweets: A New American Anthem, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zopoJ5YA5Ts. GQ, Hamilton’s Lin-Manuel Miranda Sings Donald Trump Tweets in a New Musical | GQ, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bNqZt5556k; GQ, Lin-Manuel Miranda Presents: The Donald Trump Run-On Sentence Musical | GQ, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xuVip8tDS30. See also: Naomi Graber, “Seeing Double: Presidential Parodies and the Art of the Musical,” Trax on the Trail, July 21, 2016, http://traxonthetrail.com/article/seeing-double-presidential-parodies-and-art-musical.
  39. On social media, his spelling errors are mocked or celebrated as those of a typically careless politician, those of a uniquely uncensored one, or even of a cleverly cryptic one. Randy Rainbow, COVFEFE: THE BROADWAY MEDLEY! A Randy Rainbow Parody, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1UW2ZndKqcg. See also: Hugh Atkin, Twitter & Trump — An Unpresidented Adventure, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvH4c1HG5wM; Liam Stack, “No, ‘Covfefe’ Was Not Trump Speaking Arabic,” The New York Times, June 1, 2017, sec. Politics, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/01/us/politics/covfefe-trump-arabic.html; Matt Flegenheimer, “What’s a ‘Covfefe’? Trump Tweet Unites a Bewildered Nation,” The New York Times, May 31, 2017, sec. Politics, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/31/us/politics/covfefe-trump-twitter.html. See also: “Why Does Donald Trump Always Talk Using Superlatives?,” Quora, March 2017, https://www.quora.com/Why-does-Donald-Trump-always-talk-using-superlatives. See “covfefe” in Hirsch, “Weapons of Mass Distraction.”
  40. Joy Villa, Make America Great Again! Joy Villa (Official Music Video), 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wefRJVooXHQ; MoveOn, LTH Crowd Favorite —Make America Great Again, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vf9K5KEs4rE.
  41. Everyday LaVan, Anthony Hamilton and The Hamiltones— Donald Trump Will Grab You by the Pu**y, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yU7UqXF68M; Mono Neon, MonoNeon & Anthony Hamilton/The Hamiltones —“Trump Will Grab You by the Pu**y,” 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6hlJOYOniA.
  42. The singer on the left at 0:11 of MoveOn, LTH Crowd Favorite — Make America Great Again.
  43. Nerdwriter1, How (And Why) Donald Trump Tweets, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geEVwslL-YY.
  44. See grain in Roland Barthes, Image, Music, Text, trans. Stephen Heath (London: Fontana Press, 1977).
  45. Drew Dzwonkowski, Donald Trump – In His Own Words, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2EGmPzQ6Qx8. See “In the Hall of the Mountain King,” discussed in “Mythic Gesture.”
  46. Rump for President 2016 For President, The Trump White House — Featuring Green Acres Theme Song, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hwc57zkBW5w; NODI, DONALD TRUMP SINGING MEXICAN ANTHEM, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHNTBzPtF9Q.
  47. Bad Lip Reading, “TRUMP ANTHEM” — A Bad Lip Reading of Donald Trump, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zo_mpwmashg.
  48. CNN, “Internet Makes Fun of Trump’s Executive Orders” (CNN, April 25, 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VckBrHMrHQ8; R. Hobbus, “Recent Study Shows Nearly 6 in 10 Trump Supporters Are Illiterate,” Real News Right Now (blog), October 18, 2016, http://realnewsrightnow.com/2016/10/recent-study-shows-nearly-six-ten-trump-supporters-illiterate/; Samantha Bee, “A Totally Real, 100% Valid Theory,” | Full Frontal with Samantha Bee (TBS, October 31, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=7LFkN7QGp2c.
  49. thisworldhasjumpedtheshark, Trump Draws — Complete, Yuhe Compilation, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tr3E5vz0ADs; Dean Dcruz, Donald Trump Draws Vine Compilation, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QviWL373CPo. “covfefe” videos in “Lexical Gesture.”
  50. Bomb Squad Records, Donald Trump Remix – [Bombs Away – China All The Time] Ft. Donald Trump, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7TWHj-7ycQ.
  51. CBC, Opera Legend Ben Heppner Performs The New Donald Trump Musical | Because News | CBC, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsLL-BlxD3Y. See opera and Trump in Lily Hirsch, “‘Weapons of Mass Distraction’: Music, Trump, and Democracy,” Chapter 8 of this Volume.
  52. See embodied cognition and action understanding in sound and music, e.g.: Daniel Oore and Sageev Oore, “Snap as Embodied Engagement” (Music Engagement Research Initiative Symposium, Centre for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics, Stanford, July 15, 2017); Vijay Iyer, “Improvisation, Action Understanding, and Music Cognition with and without Bodies,” in The Oxford Handbook of Critical Improvisation Studies, Volume 1 (Forthcoming), ed. Lewis and Piekut (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195370935.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195370935-e-014; Marc Thioux, Valeria Gazzola, and Christian Keysers, “Action Understanding: How, What and Why,” Current Biology 18, no. 10 (May 20, 2008): R431–34, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.03.018.
  53. Christie OQuin, Donald Trump Says Turn the Cameras Around. “I’d Fire His Ass Right Now.” (Biloxi, MS 1-2-16), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLNRvr93q0A; SON OF AFRICA MEDIA, Trump To Camerman FIRE HIS ASS TURN THE CAMERA YouTube, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjkhAgl0rVo.
  54. See “Auditory Gestures.”
  55. Josh King and Brian Williams, “Why President Donald Trump Uses a Different Microphone Than Past Presidents | The 11th Hour | MSNBC” (MSNBC, May 3, 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2EBxt0ELW0.
  56. Michel Chion, The Voice in Cinema (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999).
  57. USA TODAY, “Trump Dances, Internet Notices” (USA Today, January 20, 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WY6-KkwWrTo; CNN, “Donald Trump Dances at Church Service” (CNN, September 3, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RbkGAlqxFzQ; FOX 10 Phoenix, “THE MOST AWKWARD (Donald) Stand By Me Cover – Trump Ben Carson Dance on Stage – FNN” (FOX 10 Phoenix, March 20, 2016), https://youtu.be/bOp9k5WGoIU?
  58. Adolfo Flores, “Donald Trump Had His First Dance on Stage and People Thought It Got Awkward,” BuzzFeed, January 20, 2017, https://www.buzzfeed.com/adolfoflores/he-did-it-his-way; Theresa Massony, “Donald Trump and Melania’s Awkward First Dance Was All of Us in Middle School,” Elite Daily, January 21, 2017, https://www.elitedaily.com/news/politics/donald-trump-melania-first-dance-awkward/1761406; Kelly Mclaughlin, “Donald Trump and Melania Are Mocked for ‘Awkward’ Dance to My Way,” Mail Online, January 21, 2017, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/~/article-4142712/index.html; Will Worley, “Melania Trump Just ‘an Object’ to Her Husband, Body Language Expert Says,” Independent, January 24, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/melania-trump-first-lady-just-an-object-donald-trump-body-language-expert-us-president-white-house-a7542806.html.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. See facial expressions in Peter Collett, “The Seven Faces of Donald Trump—a Psychologist’s View,” The Guardian, January 15, 2017, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/15/the-seven-faces-of-donald-trump-a-psychologists-view.
  62. Bomb Squad Records, Donald Trump Remix – [Bombs Away – China All The Time] Ft. Donald Trump.
  63. Huw Parkinson, Life Accordion To Trump #3: “Happy Holidays” Edition, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZTn1UMs408; Huw Parkinson, Life Accordion To Trump #2, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOsGt4bEUyU; Huw Parkinson, Life Accordion To Trump, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S65jqrHQi_c.
  64. Sclafani, Talking Donald Trump.
  65. Ibid.
  66. ScottDW, DONALD TRUMP VS HILLARY CLINTON DANCE BATTLE! // ScottDW — Born to Be, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oB-b39wqf1o.
  67. Klay Network, TRUMP PLAYS CNN LIKE A FIDDLE — BEST TRUMP vs CNN MEME, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=55HKHv-bUsY.
  68. America’s Got Talent, “The Singing Trump: Bringing America Together with Backstreet Boys Medley — America’s Got Talent 2017,” America’s Got Talent, July 18, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2LACM55JFA.
  69. schmoyoho, “TRUMP CLINTON FACE OFF (Ft. Joseph Gordon-Levitt),” SONGIFY THE NEWS, October 10, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PneUk30Cqq0&list=PL0-rkS6BcMVw2VW3-4WITmUNw-mSeji3J.
  70. Rumundjin, Evil Clown Conducting Mercadante Flute Concerto No.2 in e Minor, Final, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-kbIc8Nss0; Adam Carrillo, Trump Conducts His Symphony, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T9Nq6VbDcbw&list=PL0-rkS6BcMVw2VW3-4WITmUNw-mSeji3J.
  71. Naomi Graber, Eric Hung, and Aaron Manela, “The Snowths & Mahna Mahna, Baby & Johnny, Michael Myers & the Final Girl Join the Debate,” Trax on the Trail, October 19, 2016, http://traxonthetrail.com/article/snowths-mahna-mahna-baby-johnny-michael-myers-final-girl-join-debate; The Woodcreek Faction, DONALD TRUMP : The Muppet Show Mashup, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZnlz-b2NnY.
  72. Prophetic reality in art in Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler, Psychology of the Arts (Durham: Duke University Press, 1972).
  73. Cf. reception of “In the Hall of the Mountain King” memes in “Repeating Reverberations.”
  74. RSBN 2, “Donald Trump Doesn’t Like the Microphone in Pensacola (1-13-16)” (RSBN 2, January 13, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1quVs9aogY; ThinkProgress, “Trump: It’s Not Me, It’s the Microphone,” October 28, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHX7Tw86jPI.
  75. Deron Dongwerdat, Donald Trump vs Microphone, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79t6V_65xUQ. Compare with composer John Cage’s exploration of chaotic (aleatoric) “silence” in “4’33”,” and more similarly even, in “4’33” No.2,” and “One3.” The latter two compositions call for intense amplification or a sound system on the verge of feeding-back. Cage’s 1952 “ 4’33” ” is a three-movement work where the musician does not play their instrument.
  76. Olga Khazan, The Science Behind Hating Hillary’s Voice (The Atlantic, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Z7_AKoezCA.
  77. King and Williams, “Why President Donald Trump Uses a Different Microphone Than Past Presidents | The 11th Hour | MSNBC” (May 3, 2017).
  78. ispettoreigiene, Donald Trump Green Acres Parody, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EP8W_hvQSjI; Television Academy, “Donald Trump & Megan Mullally — Green Acres at the Emmys,” July 15, 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiZqFGLAeAc.
  79. Werner Erkelens, Donald Trump: Leaked Jazz Track, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Paw5sBsyJ0; Dan Felix, Saxophonetics: Donald Trump’s Anti-Muslim Speech, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWx3i3cNLIk; Andrei Sora, Donald Trump Speech-to-Guitar Translation, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RD87K5xY-r0.
  80. Dywane MonoNeon Thomas Jr., MonoNeon: TRUMP SAYS BILLIONS AND BILLIONS!, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6329wa_Xlg.
  81. Craw, “Donald Trump Says Billions and Billions and Billions”; VICE News, Donald Trump Says Billions and Billions and Billions, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_aLESDql1U; HuffPost Entertainment, Donald Trump Says “China,” 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDrfE9I8_hs.
  82. Speech to song illusion in Diana Deutsch, “Speech to Song Illusion,” Diana Deutsch, 2013, http://deutsch.ucsd.edu/psychology/pages.php?i=212.
  83. HuffPost Entertainment, Donald Trump Says “China.”
  84. Iggy Jackson-Cohen, Donald Trump Says “China” – Bass Cover by Iggy Jackson Cohen, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHtKx2jk40U.
  85. Mono Neon, MonoNeon & Iggy Jackson Cohen: DONALD TRUMP SAYS “CHINA” (GUITAR & BASS), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDC_RbfTYdo.
  86. A Dying Ultimatum, Metal Version of Trump Saying “China” by A Dying Ultimatum, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IIwWrfC1M3U.
  87. grandayy, Donald Trump — Numa Numa Wall, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaOeM-fwByo; grandayy, Donald Trump Ft. Daft Punk — China, China, China, China, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZrNrleD2ZFs; Bomb Squad Records, Donald Trump Remix – [Bombs Away – China All The Time] Ft. Donald Trump.
  88. Reisto Belovich, “Billions and Billions” Song— Donald Trump Compilation with Emotional Piano, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJy4grc0PNI; Mono Neon, MonoNeon: Donald Trump Says “Look At My African-American Over Here…,” 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azoMhSuPZu0.
  89. Swell Connections, Tiny Hands — Fiona Apple, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geQPkEYJtf4.
  90. Neurocinematic Knickerbocker Glory, DJ Trump — A Millie (Billions & Billions Remix), 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9fTFx9CzWY. Michael Saffle identifies another one of the “many videos that imbues Trump with an air of hip hop bravado,” Michael Saffle, “The Trump Bump 2016: User-Generated Campaign Music about Donald Trump and His Political Opponents,” Trax on the Trail, February 20, 2016, http://www.traxonthetrail.com/article/trump-bump-2016-user-generated-campaign-music-about-donald-trump-and-his-political-opponents.
  91. placeboing, Billions (Trump Remix), 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeqEC66E7hk.
  92. Peter Serafinowicz, Sassy Trump Sings National Anthem on Memorial Day, Arlington, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awjGc9j7cnA.
  93. Examples from the Songify project: schmoyoho, “TRUMP VS. CLINTON (Ft. Blondie) – Songify 2016,” SONGIFY THE NEWS (YouTube, September 27, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95AR87ciruc; schmoyoho, “Trump Goes Hard – Songify 2016,” SONGIFY THE NEWS, May 20, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YcGPSnswzjc; schmoyoho, “Donald Trump Sings & Dances – Songify This,” SONGIFY THE NEWS (YouTube, November 6, 2015), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5nwNfmkaV_I.
  94. DanTDM Dubs, Donald Trump Singing The Pokemon Theme Song, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjzpuYqB6Kw.
  95. Avner Hanani, The Trump Sonata — Parts 1 & 2 (out of 6) / by Avner Hanani, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T7BqhtQ1c0Y.
  96. grandayy, Donald Trump – Scatman (Bing-Bing-Bong-Build-A-Wall), 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0khB28MgQk; grandayy, We Are Number One but It’s Bing-Bonged by Donald Trump (Featuring His Political Friends), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJxxHDTz8J4; TwinkieMan, Donald Trump Bing Bong – Remix Compilation #2, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e43EIwjVKeQ; TwinkieMan, Donald Trump Bing Bong – Remix Compilation, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oguvSPdtHQ8; White Guilt, Donald The Trump Train (Bing Bong), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjdE7zz3BqA; placeboing, “If” – Stuttering Obama Remix Featuring Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poz6W0znOfk; Manufacturing Intellect, Joe Pesci vs Donald Trump “Bing! Pow! Boom! Bing!,” 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CfyT8vTV9Y8.
  97. The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, “Donald Trump Tries to Say Something Bad About Russia,” 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1X3UzOiIGog; White Guilt, Donald The Trump Train (Bing Bong); TwinkieMan, Donald Trump Bing Bong – Remix Compilation. In fact, one analyst finds that Trump rarely uses pause “fills,” VICE News, 7 Public Speaking Tips From Donald Trump, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05tp0VscN8A.
  98. Reiq -Quake-, Donald Trump Minecraft Sniff, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9pc75W_QrE.
  99. The Well Creative Productions, #TrumpSniff Is Everything – Donald Trump Animated Debate With Hillary “The Sniff” Animation, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z21ZYjuVmVE.
  100. ANDREW HUANG, Making a Beat out of a Donald Trump Sniff, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-w9c6zYLS0.
  101. Donald Trump and Meredith McIver, Think Like a Champion: An Informal Education in Business and Life (New York: Vanguard Press, 2009).
  102. SirFudgin – MLG Voice Guy, Donald Trump Saying “Build a Wall” 1,073,741,824 Times (1 Billion), 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62t7PMFfSl4; Bill Baird, Trump Says “China” 1.35 Billion Times. Which Is the Actual Population of China., 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umhdEj9QQqQ; Exploring The Internet, Over 1,000,000 Trumps Say “Wrong,” 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wx_Zo93RQoo.
  103. The Gregory Brothers, Donald Trump Plays the Tuba – Extended Interview, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsgIyzhVZD8. This also drops a reference to the (Family Guy) motif heard in The Last Leg, Following Donald Trump with a Tuba – The Last Leg, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QosyPyUTag.
  104. Bad Lip Reading, “TRUMP ANTHEM” — A Bad Lip Reading of Donald Trump; AVbyte, DRAW MY LIFE – Donald Trump (The Musical), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7ZrJeo9ga0.
  105. Practically, impersonators still rely on microphones and playback systems to scrutinize Trump’s gestures and to disseminate their own impersonations. America’s Got Talent, “The Singing Trump: Presidential Impersonator Channels Bruno Mars – America’s Got Talent 2017,” May 30, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUTtQPMuA1Y; The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, Barbra Streisand Duets with Donald Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xv1np1f8xlc; Eyes on it, Meryl Streep as Donald Trump Public Theater Gala Shakespeare, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CjS1d3uFAw; Fox News, “Terry Fator Adds ‘Donald Trump’ to His Las Vegas Lineup,” Hannity (FOX News, May 26, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoZ_Jq5LN7Q. See playlist at dani.oore.ca/trump for other theatrical representations of Trump’s actual or imagined musical performances.
  106. Avner Hanani, The Trump Sonata / Avner Hanani, 2017, http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwEO2A7gJspBX0HtHKxbTg7z1v-v97M4l. See also “Repeating Reverberations.”
  107. ABC News, “Trump Full Press Conference as President-Elect (HD) | ABC News” (ABC News, January 11, 2017), https://youtu.be/SUyAk0bYps0.
  108. Ibid.
  109. Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary (London: Yale University Press, 2010).
  110. Soon to be discussed with respect to: MonoNeon, MonoNeon: Andrew Caldwell Exposes Brian Carn About Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjZHQACvx1o.
  111. E.g. Hugh Atkin, A Little Trump Music — Classic Trump Vol. 2.
  112. Dionysian omophagia.
  113. Thorstein Memeson, Donald Trump Emperor of America, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQCaWLF2gfs; Pacifics Edge, Donald Trump: Let’s Make America Great Again Theme Song, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ecEb4tEPic.
  114. Trump’s nicknaming as an essentializing metonymic gesture in Hall, Goldstein, and Ingram, “The Hands of Donald Trump.”
  115. forging an enemy in VICE News, 7 Public Speaking Tips From Donald Trump.
  116. Avner Hanani, The Trump Sonata – Part 3 (out of 6) / by Avner Hanani, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-dNxDbLU-U.
  117. Thorstein Memeson, Trump, Twilight of the Thundergod, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19oUVarhM4Y. sacrifice of “primordial marine monster” as cosmogenesis, in Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion, trans. Williard R. Trask, Harper Torchbooks (Harcourt, 1987).
  118. gestural relationships in Christopher Small, “Musicking — the Meanings of Performing and Listening. A Lecture,” Music Education Research 1, no. 1 (March 1999): 9–22, https://doi.org/10.1080/1461380990010102.
  119. Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note”; Joscelyn Godwin, The Harmony of the Spheres: The Pythagorean Tradition in Music (Rochester: Inner Traditions & Bear, 1992).
  120. Bill Baird, Trump Says “China” 1.35 Billion Times. Which Is the Actual Population of China., 2016.
  121. See “In the Hall of the Mountain King” meme, discussed in “Repeating Reverberations.”
  122. Joy Villa, Make America Great Again! Joy Villa (Official Music Video).
  123. on the power of the truthful word to introduce habitable order into chaos, see Jordan B. Peterson, Biblical Series II: Genesis 1: Chaos & Order, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdrLQ7DpiWs; Jordan B. Peterson, Biblical Series III: God and the Hierarchy of Authority, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_GPAl_q2QQ.
  124. Josh Kun, Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
  125. Thorstein Memeson, Donald Trump Emperor of America; Pacifics Edge, Donald Trump.
  126. Mono Neon, MonoNeon: WE ARE GOING TO SEE DONALD TRUMP IN PERSON // Mom Surprises Daughter, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yI-bO2J_mF0.
  127. Dywane MonoNeon Thomas Jr., MonoNeon: White Nationalists March in Charlottesville, Virginia… TRUMP’S AMERICA!, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkOUKc3PLMI.
  128. Mono Neon, MonoNeon: “DUMP TRUMP, WE DON’T WANT HIM” (T-AARONMusic & Christianee Porter) for Donald Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Zgre3CW7CI. Note MonoNeon’s use of six subdivided snaps starting on the words “everybody knew.” The use of the snap rhythm and its subdivided variations in rustic and socially, politically, and spiritually charged musics is studied in Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note.”
  129. Peterson, Biblical Series II; Peterson, Biblical Series III.
  130. “Coincidentia oppositorum” in Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, trans. Rosemary Sheed (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1958).b. feminine or masculine as in the “cosmological principle” that woman or man embody. Ibid. Cf. Heraclitus’s tauton “invisible harmony” or inner unity of opposites expressed in musical terms in Charles H. Kahn, The Art and Thought of Heraclitus, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995), but also Buddhist notion of shunyata as transcendence of binary experience in music, Tracy McMullen, “People Don’t Get Ready: Improvisation, Democracy, and Hope,” in People Get Ready: The Future of Jazz Is Now!, ed. Ajay Heble and Rob Wallace, Improvisation, Community, and Social Practice (Durham: Duke University Press, 2013), 265–79.
  131. Sclafani, Talking Donald Trump. Satirized musically, for example, in Hugh Atkin, In the Hall of the Mountain Trump — Classic Trump Vol. 3, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gra34FVFGaE. ambiguity and paralipsis in VICE News, 7 Public Speaking Tips From Donald Trump. Cf. neuroscience of myth, logic, ambiguity, and paradox in McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary.
  132. Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. formlessness, in “Repeating Reverberations.”
  133. Chiara Bottici, A Philosophy of Political Myth (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  134. Donné Clement Petruska, Kim Clement Prophecy— The Trump Prophecies, ISIS, Socialism, Russia, China, A Woman, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LiKIn1REnxQ; Thorstein Memeson, Trump, Twilight of the Thundergod; Prophecy In The Views, Mark Taylor September 03 2017 – THE SHIFT IS COMING – Mark Taylor Prophecy 2017, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOBvqomm0D4; Qronos16, Mark Taylor Trump Prophecies Coming True One after Another Must See!, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6iq-7AAk9s.
  135. Rage Against The Machine, Rage Against The Machine— Sleep Now in the Fire, 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w211KOQ5BMI.
  136. See subdivided snaps in earlier footnote to MonoNeon’s “Dump Trump.”
  137. See opening footnote of this chapter.
  138. Exceptions include the use of Trump’s name in the video title and its utterance by media personalities.
  139. DeeleyDog, HALL OF THE TRUMPEN KING Election Night Classic, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IMrbync0cc; Keagars2004, Who’s Laughing Now? (In the Hall of the Mountain King), 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULfBoTPXzIc; TRUMPalicious, When People Laughed At The Idea Of Trump Actually Being Elected President! Compilation, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UCl5YfYd-Qs; Keith Roman, In The Hall Of Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIWEGnEat5k; betrollingu1, In the Hall of the Trumpen King (Election Night Edition), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdVjrDEO_vs; Master Brew, IN THE HALL OF THE TRUMPEN PRESIDENT | Superior Edition, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RE-uhXKO-nk; WoodenSpurs, In the Hall of the Trumpen King (Nominee Edition), 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWC2AcxNCK8; Jim Boonie, In the Hall of the Trumpen King, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvyRIgPImOY.
  140. The “In the Hall of the Mountain King” meme is examined in detail in “Repeating Reverberations.” Hugh Atkin, In the Hall of the Mountain Trump — Classic Trump Vol. 3; Drew Dzwonkowski, Donald Trump — In His Own Words.
  141. soul music influences in Trump’s playlist examined in Wilson, “‘Pub Fight’ Politics.”
  142. Mono Neon, MonoNeon: Andrew Caldwell Exposes Brian Carn About Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjZHQACvx1o.
  143. See “last trump” in “Lexical Gestures.”
  144. E.g. Obama’s lexical gestures in will.i.am’s “Yes We Can.” See: Carol Vernallis, “Audiovisual Change: Viral Web Media and the Obama Campaign,” Cinema Journal 50, no. 4 (September 4, 2011): 73–97, https://doi.org/10.1353/cj.2011.0062. Prosodic tracing of political auditory gestures often seems to draw on Henry Hey’s pieces, which themselves seem to build on Hermeto Pascoal’s “som da aura” music. sailingandmusic, Bushsong – by Henry Hey, 2009, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-RQPeoyqyP4; Luiz Costa Lima Neto, “The Experimental Music of Hermeto Paschoal e Grupo (1981–93): A Musical System in the Making,” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9, no. 1 (2000): 119–42, https://doi.org/10.1080/09681220008567294.
  145. Mythic vilification discussed in “Mythic Gesture.” Some of Hillary Clinton’s and Bernie Sanders’s campaign ads exemplify mythic celebration, e.g.: Sanders’s America, which uses no audio of Sanders speaking (except for the obligatory “… I approve this message”). Sanders also continues to deflate his interviewers’ gossipy attempts to incite division, by shifting such discussions away from himself and back to the issues and the spirit he deems necessary to fix them, e.g.: The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, “What Bernie Sanders Wants Hillary to Do Next,” 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tv-hgegVq0k.
  146. Carol Vernallis, “Audiovisuality and the Media Swirl: Campaign 2016,” Flow, October 25, 2016, https://www.flowjournal.org/2016/10/audiovisuality-and-the-media-swirl/. Trump dominated news coverage throughout the campaigns, Brian Stelter and Ken Olshansky, “How Much Does Donald Trump Dominate TV News Coverage? This Much,” CNN, December 6, 2015, http://money.cnn.com/2015/12/06/media/donald-trump-nightly-news-coverage. Does this reflect or influence the quantity of user-generated content dedicated to Trump?
  147. Find a brief history of fan videos in Angelina I. Karpovich, “Reframing Fan Videos,” in Music, Sound and Multimedia: From the Live to the Virtual, ed. Jamie Sexton, Music and the Moving Image (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), 17–28.
  148. Bottici, A Philosophy of Political Myth.
  149. NYMAG, “113 Journalists Surveyed on Why They’re So Despised,” NYMAG | Daily Intelligencer, July 25, 2016, http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2016/07/media-survey.html; Mariana Sosa Cordero, “Three Ways to Fight Corruption in the Media,” Transparency International: The Global Coalition Against Corruption, November 18, 2016, https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/three_ways_to_fight_corruption_in_the_media.
  150. ANDREW HUANG, Making a Beat out of a Donald Trump Sniff.; Bomb Squad Records, Donald Trump Remix – [Bombs Away – China All The Time] Ft. Donald Trump.
  151. Victoria Vesna, ed., Database Aesthetics: Art in the Age of Information Overflow, Electronic Mediations, v. 20 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
  152. John Cassidy, “Donald Trump Is the ‘TV Reality’ President,” The New Yorker, February 6, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/news/john-cassidy/donald-trump-is-the-tv-reality-president; David Showalter, “Donald Trump and the Political Aesthetics of Reality Television,” Berkeley Journal of Sociology, June 8, 2017, http://berkeleyjournal.org/2017/06/donald-trump-and-the-political-aesthetics-of-reality-television/; Jeff Nesbit, “Donald Trump Is the First True Reality TV President,” Time, accessed October 2, 2017, http://time.com/4596770/donald-trump-reality-tv/.
  153. Randy Rainbow, BRAGGADOCIOUS!: Randy Rainbow Moderates Debate #1, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldfF6chin5s.
  154. Jay Willis, “Donald Trump’s Action Hero Swagger Was His Secret Weapon,” GQ, November 10, 2016, https://www.gq.com/story/donald-trumps-action-hero-swagger-was-his-secret-weapon.
  155. Robert Greene, The 48 Laws of Power, ed. Joost Elffers (London: Profile, 1998).
  156. Ari Melber, “Strategic Thinking Expert: Trump Doesn’t Get ‘Laws of Power,’” The Beat (MSNBC, August 30, 2017), http://www.msnbc.com/the-beat-with-ari-melber/watch/strategic-thinking-expert-trump-doesn-t-get-laws-of-power-1036355139917; throwawaycomedian95, “Robert Greene Talks Donald Trump, but Clearly Doesn’t Understand Him. • r/The48LawsOfPower,” Reddit, September 2017, https://www.reddit.com/r/The48LawsOfPower/comments/6zzy9d/robert_greene_talks_donald_trump_but_clearly/; Jim Swift, “Donald Trump and the 48 Laws of Power,” Weekly Standard, 10:30, /donald-trump-and-the-48-laws-of-power/article/1015193.
  157. Ibid.
  158. Robert Greene, The 48 Laws of Power, ed. Joost Elffers (London: Profile, 1998).
  159. Philip Rucker and Ashley Parker, “The White House Struggles to Silence Talk of Trump’s Mental Fitness,” Washington Post, January 8, 2018, sec. Politics, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/the-white-house-struggles-to-silence-talk-of-trumps-mental-fitness/2018/01/08/2a7d4092-f493-11e7-a9e3-ab18ce41436a_story.html. “Formlessness” is examined in business management e.g. Ken N. Kamoche, Miguel Pina E. Cunha, and Joao Vieira da Cunha, Organizational Improvisation (London; New York: Routledge, 2002), http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=180658.
  160. VICE News, 7 Public Speaking Tips From Donald Trump.
  161. Sclafani, Talking Donald Trump; VICE News, 7 Public Speaking Tips From Donald Trump.
  162. DIY and punk culture in Lars J. Kristiansen “‘Not My President’: Punk Rock and Presidential Protest from Ronald to Donald,” Chapter 2 of this Volume.
  163. C.f. fills in VICE News, 7 Public Speaking Tips From Donald Trump. Cf. Asyndeton as “selective suppression” and “deletion” of auditory memories in Jean François Augoyard and Henry Torgue, Sonic Experience: A Guide to Everyday Sounds (McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP, 2014).
  164. The term “iamb” shares etymological origins in Asia Minor with the term “triumph” in expressions of sensual and prophetic ecstasy, and later, in Ancient Greece, became known as the poetic meter of satire and invective. Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note”; Versnel, Triumphus.
  165. Rebecca Leydon, “Towards a Typology of Minimalist Tropes,” Music Theory Online 8, no. 4 (December 1, 2002), http://www.mtosmt.org/issues/mto.02.8.4/mto.02.8.4.leydon.html.
  166. Ibid.
  167. Wolff, Fire and Fury.
  168. C.f. “Mythic Gesture.”
  169. C.f. pragmatic versus poetic lists in Umberto Eco, The Infinity of Lists: An Illustrated Essay (New York: Rizzoli, 2009); Robert E. Belknap, The List: The Uses and Pleasures of Cataloguing (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004).
  170. Bottici, A Philosophy of Political Myth, 111–12, 118; Philip M. Peek and Kwesi Yankah, eds., African Folklore: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 2004), 728, 857–60; David E. Orton, ed., Prophecy in the Hebrew Bible: Selected Studies from Vetus Testamentum, Brill’s Readers in Biblical Studies, v. 5 (Leiden ; Boston, MA: Brill, 2000), 145; Hans Blumenberg, Work on Myth, trans. Robert M Wallace (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988), 40; Jeff Opland, Xhosa Poets and Poetry (New Africa Books, 1998), 85–86; David M. Howard, Jr., The Structure of Psalms 93-100 (Eisenbrauns, 1997); Alfred Sendrey, Music in Ancient Israel (Philosophical Library, 1969), 507; Barbara H. Smith, Poetic Closure (University of Chicago Press, 1968), 74; John Cumming, Prophetic Studies: Lectures on the Book of Daniel (Lindsay and Blakiston, 1855), 312. David L. Petersen, Late Israelite Prophecy: Studies in Deutero-Prophetic Literature and in Chronicles, no. 23 (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1977), 64–68. Hear also the apocalyptic list in “It’s the End of the World As We Know it (And I Feel Fine)” included in R.E.M. Document. I.R.S. 1987.
  171. Eco, The Infinity of Lists.
  172. Vernallis, Experiencing Music Video.
  173. Michael Saffle, “The Trump Bump II: Satire, Remix Culture, and User-Generated Campaign Musical Posts,” Trax on the Trail, January 12, 2017, http://traxonthetrail.com/article/trump-bump-ii-satire-remix-culture-and-user-generated-campaign-musical-posts.
  174. Today, “aesthetic signifiers, such as production value, can no longer act as a shorthand for level of quality” or truthfulness “(in part thanks to rapid technological innovation).” Brian Feldman, “Why 2018 Will Be the Year of the YouTube Moral Panic,” Select All NYMAG, January 3, 2018, http://nymag.com/selectall/2018/01/why-2018-will-be-the-year-of-the-youtube-moral-panic.html.
  175. DanTDM Dubs, Donald Trump Singing The Pokemon Theme Song.
  176. See Deleuze’s “actualization of the virtual” in Tim Barker, “Aesthetics of the Error: Media Art, the Machine, the Unforeseen, and the Errant,” in Error: Glitch, Noise, and Jam in New Media Cultures, ed. Mark Nunes (New York: Continuum, 2011), 42–58.
  177. Including that witnessed in Trump’s “shoddier” campaign ads. Vernallis, “Audiovisuality and the Media Swirl.”
  178. Barker, “Aesthetics of the Error.”
  179. Even animation satirists Trey Parker and Matt Stone (creators of the decidedly —and kinesthetically— lo-fi South Park) express doubts about their own abilities to compete with Trump, in ABC News (Australia), “Mormon the Musical Creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone Say Trump Is Too Hard to Satirise,” February 2, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcQH9VJ9sq4.
  180. Eco, The Infinity of Lists.
  181. Trump and McIver, Think Like a Champion.
  182. Avner Hanani, The Trump Sonata / Avner Hanani. See “Auditory Gesture.”
  183. See “triumph,” in “Lexical Gesture.” See discussion of Trump’s operatic opulence in Hirsch, “Weapons of Mass Distraction.”
  184. Wilson, “‘Pub Fight’ Politics.”
  185. Grieg brooded over this very composition: “which I literally cannot bear to hear, it hums so much of cow-pats, of ultra-Norwegianism and sufficient-unto-thyselfness! But I expect that the irony will also be able to be felt.” Beryl Foster, The Songs of Edvard Grieg (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK ; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2007), 92. See also: Daniel M. Grimley, Grieg: Music, Landscape and Norwegian Identity (Woodbridge; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2006), 68. On Trump and the use of sarcasm and irony, see: Nussbaum, “How Jokes Won the Election.”
  186. These contribute, perhaps unknowingly, to a body of revisionist interpretations of Ibsen and Grieg’s work, recast in the context of America’s struggle for Civil Rights, including a Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn collaboration, “Peer Gynt Suites.” Anna Celenza, “Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, and the Adventures of Peer Gynt in America,” Music and Politics 5, no. 2 (Summer 2011), https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/mp.9460447.0005.205.
  187. The Trump troll doll market and frequent media references, include: “Troll-in-Chief,” “Donald Trump the best troll in all of politics,” “Trump the Troll,” “Trolls for Trump,” and “Donald Trump Is The World’s Greatest Troll”: John Cassidy, “Donald Trump Will Go Down in History as the Troll-in-Chief,” The New Yorker, June 29, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/news/john-cassidy/donald-trump-will-go-down-in-history-as-the-troll-in-chief; Chris Cillizza, “Donald Trump Is the Best Troll in All of Politics,” CNN, April 29, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/28/politics/donald-trump-nra/index.html; Rich Lowry, “Trump the Troll,” POLITICO Magazine, May 24, 2017, http://politi.co/2qlBmuV; Stella Muir, “Someone Made A NSFW Trump Troll Doll, And Now They’re Running A Kickstarter Campaign to Mass Produce It,” Bored Panda (blog), March 2017, https://www.boredpanda.com/trump-nude-troll-doll-chuck-williams/; The Master Design, “Collectible President Donald Trump Troll Doll – Hair to the Chief,” Amazon.com, 2017, https://www.amazon.com/Collectible-President-Donald-Trump-Troll/dp/B06XNXQQ6D; Andrew Marantz, “Trolls for Trump,” The New Yorker, October 24, 2016, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/10/31/trolls-for-trump; Nate Silver, “Donald Trump Is The World’s Greatest Troll,” FiveThirtyEight (blog), July 20, 2015, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/donald-trump-is-the-worlds-greatest-troll/. Videos dedicated to the subject, include: This Information, The World’s Greatest Troll: The Humor of Donald Trump, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzkBfTfiXS0. In the scene Grieg’s music serves, the trolls sing (in Norwegian) “May I hack him on the fingers? May I tug him by the hair?
  188. See Slavoj Žižek’s analysis of Beethoven’s “Ninth” as an empty container reused to suit every ideological need, in The Pervert’s Guide to Ideology Sophie Fiennes, The Pervert’s Guide to Ideology, Documentary, 2013, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2152198/. See also disparate interpretations traced to Lakoff frames in Quentin Vieregge, “Ameritude, Framing and Convergence Culture in the American Political Landscape,” Chapter 6 of this Volume.
  189. Greene, The 48 Laws of Power.
  190. Harper, Douglas, “Troll,” Online Etymology Dictionary, 2018, https://www.etymonline.com/word/troll.
  191. Wilson, “‘Pub Fight’ Politics.”
  192. MoveOn, LTH Crowd Favorite – Make America Great Again.
  193. DanTDM Dubs, Donald Trump Singing The Pokemon Theme Song.
  194. Wilson, “‘Pub Fight’ Politics; ” Eric T. Kasper and Benjamin S. Schoening, “The Unwelcome Use of Musical Artists and Their Songs by Presidential Candidates,” Trax on the Trail, December 18, 2015, http://traxonthetrail.com/article/unwelcome-use-musical-artists-and-their-songs-presidential-candidates.
  195. Nussbaum, “How Jokes Won the Election.”
  196. sailingandmusic, McCain and Palin Sing (by Henry Hey). See musicians encouraging voting in Hirsch, “Weapons of Mass Distraction.”
  197. Hugh Atkin, “Hugh Atkin,” 2009, https://twitter.com/hmatkin?lang=en.
  198. Hugh Atkin, A Little Trump Music—Classic Trump Vol. 2.
  199. See examination of subdivided snaps in this and other compositions in Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note.” Also noted earlier in this chapter, e.g. in Tom Morello’s solo.
  200. These user comments (and all those that immediately follow), are quoted from those posted below Hugh Atkin’s video: Hugh Atkin, A Little Trump Music — Classic Trump Vol. 2.
  201. Ibid.
  202. Ibid.
  203. Ibid.
  204. Ibid.
  205. Ibid.
  206. Ibid.
  207. Ibid.
  208. Ibid.
  209. See “Trump” as proclamatory and (overly) self-promoting in “Lexical Gesture.”
  210. Jonathan Gray, Jeffrey P. Jones, and Ethan Thompson, eds., Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-Network Era (New York: NYU Press, 2009). Jay-Z explains: “The great thing about Donald Trump being president is now we’re forced to have the dialogue” about racism. Dean Baquet, Jay-Z and Dean Baquet, in Conversation (The New York Times, 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XbuQAbG2AZ0.
  211. Greene, The 48 Laws of Power.
  212. Leydon, “Towards a Typology of Minimalist Tropes.”
  213. Some different cultural correlations between different types of motion and immorality are discussed in Oore, “Snap, Twang, and Blue Note.”g. limping flat-footed Jew and black and gait comparisons between criminals and epileptics well into twentieth century Europe.
  214. Hugh Atkin, The Aria of Donald Trump (Aka “Trumpanera”) — Classic Trump Vol. 1, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Goz0PJbdURM.
  215. See Daniel Fischlin, “Improvised Responsibility: (Call and) Responsibility: Improvisation, Ethics, Co-Creation,” in The Improvisation Studies Reader: Spontaneous Acts, ed. Rebecca Caines and Ajay Heble (New York: Routledge, 2015), 289–95; McMullen, “People Don’t Get Ready.” See vulnerability and democracy in Martha Craven Nussbaum, Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities, The Public Square Book Series (Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2010). See democracy and music in Hirsch, “Weapons of Mass Distraction.”